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Companion Bible Info


PREFACE.


THE COMPANION BIBLE is a new Edition of the English Bible (new in 1909). Published originally in six Parts, it is now presented in one Volume, and the description which follows shows that the Work is a self-explanatory Bible designed for the general use of all English readers throughout the world.


It has an amount of information (much of it hitherto inaccessible to the ordinary English reader) in its wide margins not to be found in any edition of the A.V. extant. Its position, in these respects, is unique.


In size and weight, and type and paper, as well as price, it will compare favourably with all existing editions.


It is called THE COMPANION BIBLE because its wide margin is intended to be a Companion to the Text; and the whole is designed as the Companion of all readers of the Bible.


The human element is excluded, as far as possible, so that the reader may realize that the pervading object of the book is not merely to enable him to interpret the Bible, but to make the Bible the interpreter of God's Word, and Will, to him.


To the same end this Edition is not associated with the name of any man; so that its usefulness may neither be influenced nor limited by any such consideration; but that it may commend itself, on its own merits, to the whole English-speaking race.


It is NOT A NEW Translation.
It is NOT AN AMENDED Translation.
It is NOT A COMMENTARY.


THE TEXT.


The Text is that of the Authorized Version of 1611 as published by the Revisers in their "Parallel Bible" in 1886.
There are NO ALTERATIONS in the Text beyond what can be effected by a variation in the character of the TYPE. Hence, there is nothing that affects the ear when reading it aloud; but only that which meets the eye in order to call attention to important facts and truths.
All ancient readings and new and amended renderings are confined to the margin; which, for this purpose, extends to one-half the width of the page.
There are no minute English or Greek "superior" letters to confuse the Text; or to perplex the reader when searching for the corresponding number or letter in the margin.


THE TYPES EMPLOYED IN THE TEXT.


1. These distinguish ALL the Divine Names and Titles.
2. (See Ap. 4.) All pronouns used for the above have their initials indicated by capital letters.
3. The pronouns, &c., emphasized in the Original are in special type.
4. Attention is given to the capital and small letters in other cases where they affect interpretation.
5. The words spoken or cited are placed within quotation marks.
6. Where the Hebrew Text is written in separate lines, these lines are preserved by being presented in the same way in the present Edition.
7. In the Book of Psalms, the Titles will be printed so as to present the super-scriptions and sub-scriptions as brought to light and demonstrated by Dr. J. W. Thirtle.
8. In the New Testament, all quotations from the Old Testament will also be specially indicated.
9. Proper Names with their pronunciation, &c., are included in a special Appendix, No. 52.
The chapters and verses of the Authorized Version are retained; but spaces are introduced to mark them off into paragraphs; so that the advantages of both Verses and Paragraphs are retained. These paragraphs are not divided according to the usual Paragraph Bibles, but according to the Structures (see page viii), which are given in the right-hand margin; while the corresponding Index-letters are repeated in the left-hand margin, by the side of the Text with the number of the page where they may be found; so that the subjects of the various Paragraphs (or Members) may be seen at a glance, and be intelligently followed.
The other figures in the left-hand margin are the B.C. dates.


THE MARGIN.


A small circle (°) against a word or words in the Text calls attention to the same word or words which are REPEATED in the right-hand margin, with the number of the verse to which they belong.
In order to save repetition, and economize valuable space in the margin, words in the Text on which a note has already been given in a preceding verse in the same chapter, and to which the same note applies, are marked with the number of the verse in which such note is given.
When these words are referred to there will be found no "views" expressed, but only facts which are incontrovertible, and information which is indispensable.
Where references are given, these are not merely to PARALLEL PASSAGES, or to the same ENGLISH words, which are often as unnecessary as they are misleading; but only to those passages which explain the words in the Original, and which throw light upon their truth and teaching.
If an amended rendering is suggested in the margin, and several references follow, then the reader knows that he has before him ALL the occurrences of such words in the Original. Where there is "&c." at the end of such references, then he will know that the Hebrew or Greek word in question occurs too many times for all the passages to be given; but that a sufficient number is selected as evidence in favour of such amended rendering. Thus the reader will be able to judge for himself as to the accuracy of what is suggested: and the Bible becomes its own interpreter.


THE MARGINAL NOTES.


1. In the OLD TESTAMENT all the important readings will be given1 according to Dr. C. D. Ginsburg's Massoretico-Critical Text of the Hebrew Bible2.
2. In the NEW TESTAMENT all the important readings will be given according to the evidence of the great textual critics, Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Alford, Westcott and Hort, and the Revisers' Greek Text.
3. There are no words in Hebrew or Greek characters to burden or hinder the English reader. But a complete system of Transliteration, generally approved by Oriental Scholars (see p. x), will enable him readily to put back all such words into the Original characters with ease and accuracy. The Hebrew words are given not in the Inflection found in the Text, but in the root-form in which they will be looked for in Lexicons.
4. All important emendations are given--
(a) Whether required by the above readings,
(b) Or demanded for the sake of uniformity in translation,
(c) Or, where the current renderings are inadequate and open to amendment 3: not otherwise, or merely for the sake of giving an alternative.
5. The facts and phenomena treasured up in the Massōorah are for the first time presented in connection with the A.V. 2 (see Ap. 30).
6. All Figures of Speech are noted, and their bearing on interpretation1. These are the Holy Spirit's own markings, calling attention to what is emphatic, and worthy of our deepest attention (see Ap. 6).
7. The spiritual significance of Numbers is pointed out (see Ap. 10).
8. The principal synonymous words in the Original are distinguished, especially those bearing on sin, atonement, and psychology.
9. The first occurrences of important words and expressions are duly noted.
10. The most recent Archæeological discoveries in Assyria, Egypt, &c., are included.
11. Eastern manners and customs are explained, as they throw light on the Scriptures.
12. The meanings of Proper Names of persons or places are given where these are suggestive.
13. Money and Coins, Weights and Measures, are referred in every case to Appendix 51.
14. Chronology is dealt with on Biblical lines, which proceed on durations rather than dates. These are adhered to as given in the Bible itself, and are not adapted or made to conform to any system. This transforms a dry study into a subject of deepest interest. The various Charts and Tables are given in Appendix 50.
15. The Structures of the Books are given, and all their parts: which are the surest guide to their interpretation, and the strongest proof of their inspiration1. (See p. viii.)
1 This is the first time that these have been presented in connection with the Authorized Version.
2 These were inaccessible to the past generation of Commentators and Translators.
3 By copying out the A.V., and substituting these amended renderings, the student may make his own new Revised Version.
The marginal notes do not record every POSSIBLE Reading or Emendation, as these would only load the pages with a mass of needless matter. Only those new readings and renderings are given which will remove difficulties from the Text, enlighten the eyes, inform the mind, affect the conscience, instruct the head, and influence the life.
Several of the above points are, for the first time, placed within the reach of the ordinary English reader.


THE STRUCTURES


Referred to on p. vii make THE COMPANION BIBLE an unique edition, and require a special notice.


They give, not a mere Analysis evolved from the Text by human ingenuity, but a Symmetrical Exhibition of the Word itself, which may be discerned by the humblest reader of the Sacred Text, and seen to be one of the most important evidences of the Divine Inspiration of its words.


For these Structures constitute a remarkable phenomenon peculiar to Divine Revelation; and are not found outside it in any other form of known literature.


This distinguishing feature is caused by the repetition of subjects which reappear1, either in alternation or introversion, or a combination of both in many divers manners.


This repetition is called "Correspondence", which may be by way of similarity of contrast; synthetic or antithetic.


The subjects of the various Members are indicated by letters, which are quite arbitrary and are used only for convenience. The subject of one Member is marked by a letter in Roman type, while the repetition of it is marked by the same letter in Italic type. These are always in line (vertically), one with the other.


When the alphabet is exhausted, it is repeated, as often as may be necessary.


The Structure of the whole book is given at the commencement of each book; and all the succeeding Structures are the expansion of this.


Each Structure is referred back to the page containing the larger Member, of which it is an expansion or development.


The large Members forming a telescopic view of the whole book are thus expanded, divided, and subdivided, until chapters and paragraphs, and even verses and sentences, are seen to form part of a wondrous whole, giving a microscopic view of its manifold details, and showing forth the fact, that while the works of the LORD are great and perfect, the WORD of the LORD is the greatest of His works, and is "perfect" also (Psalm 19. 7).


THE APPENDIXES


Contain a large amount of information bearing on the various questions raised by the phenomena of the Sacred Text.


Those issued with each of the four volumes pertain principally to such volumes. But in the complete Bible they will all be placed together at the end.


The number of those which are given with the Pentateuch may be out of proportion to the total number, because those issued with Genesis are needed not only for that book, but many of them (such as the Chronological Tables, &c.) contain information that will be required and referred to throughout the Bible.


The order of the Appendixes is determined for the most part by the order in which the subjects are raised in the Text of the Bible.


1 It is this repetition which has made possible the system of Bible-marking known by some as "Railways.”


EXPLANATIONS.


REFERENCES. Where there is no name of a book in the margin, the reference is always to the same book , and all the References in the margin are to The Companion Bible, not to any Edition of the, A.V., or R.V.


SUPERIOR FIGURES, in the Text, always refer to the verse, so numbered, in the same chapter.


The repetition of the same subject in a note is sometimes indicated by its initial (capital) letter.


The figures in the left-hand margin relate to two separate matters. Those in brackets, with a "p", refer to the number of the page on which the corresponding letter and member will be found. The number of the page so indicated holds good until another page number is given.


The other figures refer to the B.C. dates.


THE TRANSLITERATION OF HEBREW WORDS .


WITH the aid of the following Table, any English reader who knows the Hebrew alphabet can put back the English letters into the Hebrew characters, by noting the exact equivalents:--


The six consonants marked with an asterisk (*) have a dot (Dagesh) within them, when placed at the beginning of a word; but not when they are situated in any other part of the word (except when the letter in question is to be doubled, in which case it is doubled in the English).


As an example of the application of the above principles, the following is the first verse in the Hebrew Bible, the Hebrew being read from right to left:--


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